Boethius's discussion of God's foreknowledge/omniscience, his eternity, judgement and our free will is explicitly listed as a required topic for the OCR A2 Philosophy of Religion paper. Here is a copy of the text. And below is a summary/commentary.

chance doesn’t really exist
Let’s suppose you found some buried gold – you’d say it was chance
but this just means that it was unexpected and that you are ignorant of the causes
not that there was no cause!
chance = “an unexpected result from the coincidence of certain causes in matters where there was another purpose”
“The order of the universe, advancing with its inevitable sequences brings about this coincidence of causes.” i.e. so determinism is true?
order comes from ‘Providence’ i.e. God/God’s plan – which disposes all things in their proper time and place

are our minds/ mental phenomena caused in this ‘chain of fate’ too?
We do have free will, in terms of making judgements and decisions

we are more free when contemplating God(!); less free when pursuing physical urges (enslaved by our earthly members and ruinous passions)

God does know everything – “He looks over all”
“With one glance of His intelligence He sees all that has been, that is, and that is to come.” = omniscience [link to foreknowledge, eternity, timelessness]

is there an incompatibility between God knowing everything (his foreknowledge/ omniscience) and us having free will?
there is nothing we do or think which God has not foreseen – things can’t turn out otherwise – surely a problem for freedom (freedom = could have done otherwise)?

God’s knowing about an event doesn’t mean that God’s knowing about it caused that event; God’s foreknowledge is not the cause of the foreknown events
events are foreseen because they are about to happen; they do not happen because they are foreseen
you know that the man is sitting down because it is true that he is sitting down; it is not the case that he is sitting down because you know it!
you can know something because it’s true; it’s not true because you know it.
you know the man is sitting down; the fact that you know he is sitting doesn’t mean that you caused him to sit down!

but still, if God knows about what you are going to do before you do it (even though he doesn’t cause it), then it couldn’t be otherwise – you can’t do otherwise, \ you do not have free will

we can’t solve this problem by proposing that God foresees a range of possibilities and likelihoods;
God knows what actually will happen

but if what God knows inevitably happens, then how do we have any choice?
it seems there is no free will; God, knowing everything, binds and controls all things
so rewards and punishments, praise and blame, are undeserved, unfair – couldn’t have done otherwise
rewarding someone for honesty seems unfair because it wasn’t their will that made them honest!

everything seems inevitable and is ultimately attributable to God
prayer seems futile, because we aren’t going to change God’s mind!

we can’t understand God!

different faculties of understanding
senses Þ imagination Þ reason Þ intelligence
a creature with a higher faculty of understanding understands how the lesser faculties work, but a creature only with a lesser faculty can’t understand how the higher faculties work

shellfish Þ senses only
running animals Þ senses + imagination
human beings Þ senses + imagination + reason
God Þ senses + imagination + reason + intelligence

God’s ‘reason’ (‘intelligence’) is not like our reason
we can’t understand God’s intelligence using our reason
like the lesser animals can’t understand our reason using their imagination or senses
[who can fathom the unfathomable mind of God? God is beyond our understanding c.f. Job]

God is eternal
“Eternity is the simultaneous and complete possession of infinite life”

eternity is not like everything on Earth, which is temporal (i.e. in time)
moving through present from past to future; present is a changing, passing moment;
future cannot yet be grasped; past is lost to us

the universe may be everlasting, sempiternal, lasting for all of time (even an infinite length of time), but it is not eternal (like God) – it does not embrace the whole simultaneously

“eternal is that which grasps and possesses wholly and simultaneously the fullness of unending life”
“ever present”

God is not older than his creations – not in time
God is immutable (unchanging)
changing is what constitutes being in time – God’s not being in time is connected to his immutability

the Earthly ‘temporal present’ is similar to the ‘abiding present’ of God (the best way we can get a grasp of what eternity is like)

not that God starts in the past and looks forward – making unfailing accurate predictions which then come to pass
rather God is abidingly present, embracing the fullness of time as a whole simultaneously
[\ the term foreknowledge is a little misleading]

God still knows how time works! he know the temporal order of things, and that from our perspective certain events appear to us as past and others future
you can see things simultaneously and yet you can distinguish between them!

it is necessary that if you know that a man is walking, he must be walking
but this doesn’t mean that it is necessary that he should be walking
it is not our knowledge of him that is compelling him to walk!

similarly, if God sees an event in its abiding present, that thing must be the case, but it is not God seeing it that makes it happen
“God looks in His present upon those future things which come to pass through free will.”
“all things that God foreknows do come to pass, but some of them proceed from free will”

“take the sun rising and a man walking; while these operations are occurring, they cannot but occur: but the one was bound to occur before it did; the other was not so bound.”

am I free to change the future that is already laid out for me? thereby changing what God foresees?
God already knows (in his abiding present) that you are going to do so [Matrix – vase], but it is still you doing the deciding

one glance
“peculiar directness” in embracing all of time in the abiding present

God’s knowledge of our actions is not causing us to act
(and our actions do not in any way change God’s knowledge)
our ‘freedom of judgement’, our free will, still exists – our will is not forced by God

\ reward and punishment is not unjust
God knows all our thoughts and actions, given his ever-present eternity and omniscience/ foreknowledge
we are responsible for our actions
God is a fair judge, rewarding good and punishing bad

[surely though, God is still indirectly responsible for the bad that we do – in that God could have made us such that we wouldn’t have done those bad things – damnation to Hell seems harsh, given that God could have prevented this – c.f. predestination and discussion of Calvin]

We have 4 key issues arising from Boethius – to what extent is his solution, in each case, satisfactory?
  1. how God’s foreknowledge/ omniscience is compatible with our having free will
  2. that God is beyond our understanding
  3. how we should understand God’s eternity (and also how we should understand God’s omniscience)
  4. God is a fair judge (and omniscient), and we are responsible for our actions